Tank 1990: stars battle defense war ace hero

The T-90 main battle tank, the most modern tank in the army arsenal, went into low-level production in 1993, based on a prototype designated as the T-88. The T-90 was developed by the Kartsev-Venediktov Design Bureau at the Vagonka Works in Nizhniy Tagil. Initially seen as an entirely new thiết kế, the production mã sản phẩm is in fact based on the T-72BM, with some added features from the T-80 series. The T-90 features a new generation of armor on its hull và turret. Two variants, the T-90S và T-90E, have sầu been identified as possible export models. Plans called for all earlier models to lớn be replaced with T-90s by the kết thúc of 1997, subject to funding availability. By mid-1996 some 107 T-90s had gone inlớn service in the Far Eastern Military District.Derived from the T-72, the GPO Uralvagonzavod T-90 is the most modern tank currently in service with the Russian Army. Of conventional layout, the T-90 represents a major upgrade to lớn every system in the T-72, including the main gun. The T-90 is an interlặng solution, pending the introduction of the new Nizhny Tagil MBT which has been delayed due to laông xã of funding. Produced primarily mainly due lớn its lower cost, the T-90 it will probably remain in low-rate production to lớn keep production lines open until newer designs become available. Several hundred of these tanks have been produced, with various estimates suggesting that between 100 and 300 are in service, primarily in the Far East.The T-90 retains the 125-milimet 2A46-series main gun of the T-72 và T-80 which is capable of firing APDS, HEAT & HE-FRAG projectiles as well as time-fuzed shrapnel projectiles. The Refleks 9M119 AT-11 SNIPER laser-guided missile with a hollow-charge warhead is effective sầu against both armored targets & low-flying helicopters. The missile, which can penetrate 700-mm of RHAe out to 4000 meters, gives the T-90 the ability khổng lồ engage other vehicles & helicopters before they can engage the T-90. The computerised fire control system and laser range-finder, coupled with the new Agave gunner"s thermal sight, permit the T-90 to engage targets while on the move sầu và at night. However, this first generation system is probably not as capable as current Western counterpart systems. The tank is fitted with precision laying equipment and an automatic loader lớn guarantee a high rate of gun fire. Secondary armament includes a coaxial 7.62mm PKT machine gun và 12.7milimet machine gun mount to for air & ground targets.

The T-90 features the low silhouette of the earlier Russian tanks, with a low rounded turret centered on the hull, and is fitted with combined passive sầu and active sầu defenses which make the T-90 one of the best protected main battle tanks in the world. The glacis is covered by second generation explosive reactive armor bricks, as is the turret. This ERA gives the turret an angled appearance, with the ERA bricks forming a "clam shell" appearance. ERA bricks on the turret roof provide protection from top-attack weapons.

The T-90 is equiped with the TShU-1-7 Shtora-1 optronic counter measures system which is designed lớn disrupt the laser target designation and rangefinders of incoming ATGM.


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The T-90 is also equipped with a laser warning package that warns the tank crew when it is being lased. Shtora-1 is an electro-optical jammer that jams the enemy�s semiautomatic comm& lớn line of sight (SACLOS) antitank guided missiles, laser rangefindersand target designators. Shtora-1 is actually a soft kill, or countermeasures system.It is most effective when used in tandem with a hard kill system such as the Aremãng cầu.During the International Defense Exposition (IDEX) held in Abu Dhabi in1995, the system was shown fitted to lớn a Russian MBT. The first known application of the system is the Russian T-90 MBT that entered service in the Russian Army in1993. Shtora-1 is currently installed on the T-80UK, T-80U, T-84 and T-90 MBTs. The Shtora-1 system comprises four key components, the electro-optical interfacestation, which includes a jammer, modulator, & control panel; a bank offorward-firing grenade dischargers mounted on either side of the turret thatare capable of firing grenades dispensing an aerosol screen; a laser warning systemwith precision và coarse heads; and a control system comprising controlpanel, microprocessor, & manual screen-laying panel. This processes theinformation from the sensors & activates the aerosol screen-laying system. Two infrared lights, one on each side of the main gun, continuously emit coded pulsed infrared jamming when an incoming ATGM has been detected. Shtora-1 has a field of view of 360-degrees horizontally and -5 lớn +25-degrees in elevation. It contains 12 aerosol screen launchers and weighs 400kilogam. The screening aerosol takes less than 3 seconds to lớn size và lasts about trăng tròn seconds. The screen laying range is between 50-70 meters.

The T-90 is powered by the V-84MS 618 kW (840 hp) four-stroke V-12 piston multi-fuel diesel engine, which can also run on T-2, TS-1 kerosene và A-72 benzine. This engine results in a power lớn weight ratio of only 18.06 hp/ton, considerably less than that of the T-80. The tank crew can prepare fording equipment within trăng tròn minutes lớn negotiate 5 meter deep water obstacles. The tank is also fitted with the NBC protection system và mounted mineclearing equipment.VARIANTSThere are at least three different variants of the T-90. The Russians confirmed the existence of an export variant in June 1996 with varying equipment & engine fits, & Russian promotional materials have sầu discussed both the T-90S (or �C� in the sometimes-used Cyrillic non-translation) & the T-90SK commvà variant. The T-90K command variant differs in radio và navigation equipment và Ainet remote-detonation system for HEF rounds. There are also occasional references to lớn a T-90E, but these appear khổng lồ be unsubstantiated.

As of mid-2000 India planned to acquire T-90 tanks, based on field trials which had already been completed. Although orders had been placed for the supply of 124 Arjun tanks through the Defence Research Development Organisation, it would be difficult khổng lồ predict when these orders would be fufilled. Until such time, T-90 tanks would serve lớn counter Pakistan"s T-85 tanks.

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